Management Report & Annexes | Fundamental Information About the Group

12.1 Energy Consumption

Energy and material consumption and emission levels are essentially dependent on the manufactured sales volume, which does not include intermediates.

In 2014 Bayer’s manufactured sales volume rose by 2.7%. Total energy consumption in the Group also rose, namely by 5.5% to 85.3 petajoules. We differentiate between primary energy consumption at our sites – mainly of fossil fuels for our own generation of electricity and steam – and secondary energy consumption that reflects the purchase of electricity, steam and refrigeration energy and the use of process heat. Primary energy consumption fell by 4.2%, while secondary energy consumption rose by 19.5%. Volumes of natural gas and crude oil used as energy sources were up on the previous year but considerably less coal, waste and other primary energy sources (e.g. hydrogen) were used in our own in-house energy generation processes. In the case of secondary energy sources, the use of steam has risen significantly. Consumption of electricity and process heat was also above the prior-year level (see Table 3.12.1).

The rise in total energy consumption (primary and secondary energy sources) is mainly caused by increased production activities and the resulting growth in manufactured sales volume. This development could be observed in particular at the Baytown site in the United States. However, the inclusion for the first time of the energy-intensive MaterialScience site in Maasvlakte, Netherlands, in our environmental reporting in 2014 also had a major effect. It was included in the scope of consolidation in 2013 and retroactively for 2012. This site alone is responsible for 4.8% of the Group’s energy consumption. Production in Maasvlakte is exclusively of intermediates, which according to our definition are not included in the manufactured sales volume. The energy necessary for their manufacture is included in full in the total energy consumption, however. Without this special factor the trend away from a correlation between manufactured sales volume and energy consumption already identified in previous years would have still been recognizable.

Energy Consumption in the Bayer Group     [Table 3.12.1]
  2010 2011 2012 2013 2014
Primary energy consumption
for the in-house generation
of electricity & steam (TJ)
51,632 50,096 49,047 47,582 45,572
Natural gas 31,847 31,162 30,411 29,796 31,580
Coal 17,801 16,776 15,954 15,094 12,611
Liquid fuels 532 660 656 416 421
Waste 678 515 1,005 1,282 833
Other1 774 983 1,021 994 127
Secondary energy consumption
(net, TJ)
34,078 34,846 34,137 33,266 39,745
Electricity2 25,229 25,475 25,849 25,560 27,177
Steam 722 1,054 (121) (801) 3,579
Steam from waste heat (process heat) 8,722 9,000 9,144 9,146 9,639
Refrigeration energy (595) (683) (735) (639) (650)
Total energy consumption
85,710 84,942 83,184 80,848 85,317
Manufactured sales volume3
(million metric tons)
10.4 11.0 11.2 11.1 11.4
Energy efficiency4
3.77 3.63 3.50 3.44 3.37
1 e.g. hydrogen
2 Secondary energy consumption for electricity is based on the raw material mix of the country concerned.
3 The manufactured sales volume comprises all products sold in the reporting year, including secondary and trade products.
4 Energy efficency: quotient of total energy consumption and manufactured sales volume. For MaterialScience, this does not include either the secondary products sodium hydroxide solution and hydrochloric acid generated in production or trade products.

Bayer utilizes primary energy as efficiently as possible and applies combined heat and power processes in more than 90% of its energy generation. The electricity and heat generated are used in our own production facilities and third-party facilities (especially of Lanxess Deutschland GmbH as the other shareholder of our service company Currenta). The (secondary) energy purchased via us is also used at third-party production facilities. Furthermore, we purchase electricity on the market – through electricity exchanges, for example. The proportion of renewable energies is determined by the energy mix of our energy suppliers. We comment in detail on these issues in the CDP (previously Carbon Disclosure Project) Report.

Last updated: February 26, 2015  Copyright © Bayer AG